Modernization of the Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire was the longest-lasting dynasty in recorded human history. It was founded by semi-nomadic tribes in the early 14th century, and lasted until the early 20th century. This time period saw great change and transformation in the world from a political, economic, and even social point of view, mainly via the arrival of modernity in the 18th and 19th centuries.
A common trope in the past was that the Ottomans fell behind and became a relic as time went on, entering a period of terminal decline in the second half of their rule. This has fallen out of favor, as new research has shown that the Ottomans underwent great transformation themselves as the world changed. They managed to completely change core institutions in the empire from the military, the bureaucracy, the law and courts, the education system and more.
Another belief was that as the Ottomans changed and modernized, they also secularized. This has also been shown to be false by the evidence, as the Ottomans continued to remain "Islamic" and strove hard to maintain their Islamic character and values even as they transformed and modernized.