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According to Merriam-Webster, liberalism is a "political doctrine that takes protecting and enhancing the freedom of the individual to be the central problem of politics."[1] Note that the technical term "liberalism" is different from the colloquial liberalism vs conservatism idea. In fact, both liberals and conservatives in most Western societies would be termed liberals, and some conservatives do call themselves "classical liberals."


Early history: The Enlightenment

John Locke etc, French revolution

20th century challenges

Fascism and communism

Liberalism's short-lived triumph

End of history, but then rise of Trump.

Contemporary debates

Tolerance of intolerance

Can liberalism tolerate anything other than itself

Alleged failure

Deneen and why liberalism failed