=== Sovereignty ===
Sovereignty is the idea that the people residing within a state's borders have a "will," and the state is there to embody and enact this will. Despite being largely imaginary, it is one of the hallmarks of the modern state, and the "will of the people" is one of the rallying cries often used in politics today.<ref name="
state"> Hallaq</ref ></blockquote>
<blockquote>The will, popular and collective, does not presuppose actual and active individual participation but claims its collective force precisely because it is a fiction. The concept loses none of its force even when nondemocratic powers come to rule, for even in the absence of traditional democratic practices, any state (read: nation-state) comes to expect its sovereign will to be embodied in the acts and speech of its rulers, even when they happen to be a band of devils.
Sovereignty also has an international dimension. This began to take form after the Peace of Westphalia (1648) which put an end to the 30 Years' War, by giving rulers the exclusive right to choose the official religions of their states, and disallowing any outside power from interfering in this process. Thus, the ruler becomes the representative of the citizens of the state - regardless of how he came to power or how oppressive his rule is.